With looking further into the statistics, it shows that this is not always the case. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. ***HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/macro-economic-indicators-and-the-business-cycle/macro-limitations-of-gdp/a/how-well-gdp-measures-the-well-being-of-society-cnx, Shah, P. (n.d.). Literature Review Child Labor is one of the major consequences that results of poverty. While some work to assist their families, others work to pay for their own education. With children working full-time jobs it has a negative impact on school attendance. Lastly, one study was a meta-analysis conducted on data of working children in 83 LMIC documented that child labor is significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious diseases.8. Becker suggests that cash transfer programs could be a major benefit; this would provide poor families with a guaranteed monthly income and relieve the pressure parents may feel to send their child to work. physical and/or mental health), exposure (type of child labor), country of study, age group, gender, study design, reported measures (independent variables) and outcome measures (Table 1). The impact of economic exploitation on the health and welfare of children, Child Labour: A Textbook for University Students, Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution, The millennium project: a plan for meeting the millennium development goals, Policy: sustainable development goals for people and planet, The health impact of child labor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data, The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis, The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions, Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status, Effect of child labour on growth of children, Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh, Work-related injuries with child labor in Iran, Child labor in a rural Egyptian community: an epidemiological study, Health of children working in small urban industrial shops, Evidence on the impact of child labor on child health in Indonesia, 1993–2000, Health status of working children in Jordan: comparison between working and nonworking children at schools and industrial sites, Morbidity profile of child labor at gem polishing units of Jaipur, India, Relative risk and prevalence of illness related to child labor in a rural block, Child labor and musculoskeletal disorders: the Pelotas (Brazil) epidemiological survey, Child labor and acute pesticide poisoning in Nicaragua: failure to comply with children’s rights, Eyestrain in working children of footwear making units of Agra, India, Respiratory morbidities among working children of gem polishing industries, India, Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among street and labour children in Tehran, Iran, Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in Ethiopia, The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: a national study, Prevalence of behavioural and psychological problems in working children, The prevalence of mental health problems in Ethiopian child laborers, Child abuse among working children in rural Bangladesh: prevalence and determinants, Abuse of working children and influencing factors, Turkey, Child labor and sexual assault among girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria, Height and weight as a reflection of the nutritional situation of school-aged children working and living in the streets of Jakarta, Psychosocial impacts of child work: a framework for research, monitoring and intervention. 138, which makes exceptions in some cases (ILO). It is a human Literature Review Child labour can affect a child in many ways. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. The International Labor Organization (ILO) describes child labor as ‘work that deprives children of their childhood, potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development’.2 This definition includes types of work that are mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children; or disrupts schooling. Of these 250 million, 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% are in Latin America (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). Schools would also need to be a safe and healthy place to learn, this becomes an issue in some places such as South Africa where there have been reports by the Human Rights Watch (HRW) speaking about sexual abuse by teachers and other students. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228426229_The_Economic_Impact_of_Child_Labour, The economic impact of child labour. Abuse after abuse: The recurrent maltreatment of American Indian children in foster care and adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the more recent theoretical and empirical research into the topic of child labour, and to illustrate the fact that no one factor on its own can account for the phenomenon of child labour. [...], In the past decade, the percentage of women who have joined the workforce in the United States has greatly increased, almost doubling from the 1960s to the 2010s (Shin: Oct 9, 2018). Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263275832_Socioeconomic_impacts_of_child_labou, How well GDP measures the well-being of society. The next step would be to implement a strong set of effective laws and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children. However, another study in Ethiopia28 reported a lower prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child laborers compared to non-working children. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, A systematic review of interventions to link families with preschool children from healthcare services to community-based support, Collective control, social cohesion and health and well-being: baseline survey results from the communities in control study in England, Frailty, sarcopenia, cachexia and malnutrition as comorbid conditions and their associations with mortality: a prospective study from UK Biobank, Technology addiction among school-going adolescents in India: epidemiological analysis from a cluster survey for strengthening adolescent health programs at district level, About the Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Review of policies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in 49 low- and middle-income countries, Opportunities for reducing morbidity and mortality due to leading cancers in a developing country, The effects of smokeless cookstoves on peak expiratory flow rates in rural Honduras, Cochrane update: identifying health-related research resources relevant to low- and middle-income countries. This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. Get your own essay from professional writers. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making. (n.d.). LITERATURE REVIEW ON CHILD LABOR Literature Review on Child Labor Literature Review on Child Labor Children are most routinely discovered employed in family-based agriculture, services for example household help, bistros, road vending, prostitution, and small-scale constructing of carpets, garments, and furnishings (Williams, 2007). None of the patients was using a preventive device at the time of injury. The majority of them also had mixed-gender samples, with only one study restricted to females.24 In addition, valid measures were used in most studies (Table 1). We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. CHILD LABOR and its Socio-Economic Impact. Long working hours have been associated with poorer physical outcomes.18, 19, 25, 26, 35 It was also reported that the likelihood of being sexually abused increased with increasing working hours.34 The different types and sectors of labor were found to be associated with different health outcomes as well.13, 18, 24 However, comparing between the different types of labor was not possible due to lack of data. In such cases, we used only relevant items. He visited many poor areas in Egypt in order to discover the causes of child labor. In 2016, it was estimated that ~150 million children under the age of 14 are engaged in labor worldwide, with most of them working under circumstances that denies them a playful childhood and jeopardize their health.7 Most working children are 11–14 years, but around 60 million are 5–11 years old.7 There are no exact numbers of the distribution of child labor globally; however, available statistics show that 96% of child workers are in Africa, Asia and Latin America.1. Children play a major role in economic development in Ethiopia, especially in the rural areas. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Working children are subjected to higher levels of physical and mental stress compared to non-working children and adults performing the same type of work. The majority of studies concluded that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders, as shown in the results. Literature Review and Mapping of Interventions of Child Labour in Vietnam How can we help resolve child labor in Vietnam? To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC) In Cameroon, children who don’t go to school, like orphans for example, work full-time in places like cocoa and coffee plantations (Ndinela,2006). Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. *The quality is based on the percentage of Downs and Black10 tool, < 50% = poor, 50–75% = fair, > 75% = good. Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. Ending child labor will not only be protecting children and their families, but will also strengthen communities and build economies. On top of malnutrition, the nature of labor has its effects on child’s health. Although there is a decline in the number of working children, the quality of life of those still engaged in child labor seems to remain low. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. Eye to the Future in Adenomyosis Research. Since then, an increasing number of studies have used similar methods to assess the health impacts of child labor. The first step to ending child labor is increase attendance in schools, as attendance increases child labor will decrease. If children do not have the opportunity to attend school, they will never escape poverty and never achieve upward social mobility. A study conducted in Pakistan reported that the prevalence of behavioral problems among working children was 9.8%. Girls who were younger than 12 years, had no formal education, worked for more than 8 h/day, or had two or more jobs were more likely to experience sexual assault.34. All rights reserved. Al-Gamal E, Hamdan-Mansour AM, Matrouk R et al. Often, it is the economic, social and political barriers that limit one's potential to succeed. that their findings could have been tampered by selection bias or healthy worker effect. Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. Our search algorithm was [(‘child labor’ OR ‘child labor’ OR ‘working children’ OR ‘occupational health’ OR ‘Adolescent work’ OR ‘working adolescents’) AND (Health OR medical)]. Child labor was part of the Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 191 nations in 20 005 to be achieved by 2015. On the macroeconomic side child labor is the cause for negative long run growth and social development through a reduced human capital accumulation. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. Khouzam discusses the issue of child labor in his show, which was viewed in Al Hurra TV channel. There are many national laws and regulations as well as international laws, like convention No. Subsequently, child labor was included in the Sustainable Development Goals,6 which explicitly calls for eradication of child labor by 2030. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW Child labour is rampant in Ethiopia and its children are generally working- children, despite laws and regulations that prohibit children from engaging in exploitative work detrimental to their physical, mental and social development. Nevertheless, to minimize bias, we employed rigorous search methods including an extensive and comprehensive search, and data extraction by two independent reviewers. Under the government's close supervision, this needs to stop happening. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor: Are girls affected differently from boys? Peer problems were most prevalent, followed by problems of conduct.30 A study from Ethiopia31 reported that emotional and behavioral disorders are more common among working children. Under this assumption of a deduction in child labour both in the informal and formal economy, can leads to a demand for more schooling, which is not automatic (Galli,2001). 1.1 Background of the study Child labour is a significant social problem growing in the world today. Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. Children’s Manifest Anxiety Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory, Social life and habits, nutritional habits, recent complaints (last 2 weeks), chronic illnesses, health during the last year, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, Age, gender, working lives, workplace characteristics, family income, family status including number of siblings and parents, Physical, emotional and sexual abuse, as well as physical neglect, Developing countries according to the WB classification, Gender, adult mortality rate for men, adult mortality rate for women, percentage of the population below the poverty line, percentage of adults infected with HIV/AIDS, percentage of the population undernourished, percentage of children aged 10–14 years who were workers (child labor prevalence), The mortality rate among boys aged 10–14 years, the mortality rate among girls aged 10–14 years, and the percentage of the population aged 10–14 years undernourished, Age, gender, employment duration, working hours, Age, duration of employment, working hours per day, reasons for working, Systematic symptoms including respiratory, GIT, Musculoskeletal, skin and CNS symptoms, Eye strain and repeated injury, Physical health (respiratory morbidities), Age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure, X-ray, Respiratory morbidities (TB, Hilar gland enlargement/calcification), Copyright © 2021 Faculty of Public Health. The literature review. Parker1 reported that child labor is associated with certain exposures like silica in industries, and HIV infection in prostitution. (2011, July 13). When this standard definition of work is applied, child labor appears much more common among boys than among girls in most countries. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://laborcenter.uiowa.edu/special-projects/child-labor-public-education-project/about-child-labor/causes-child-labor, (PDF) Socioeconomic impacts of child labour – ResearchGate. It included focus of study (i.e. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. However one must make a distinction between child labour and exploitation of child labour. Homelessness is a problem that has no regard for its victims. A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. [...], The growing concern of poverty is a prevalent issue that prevents many individuals from succeeding. This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job. Asia has a large number of child domestic workers. Additionally, most of the studies are confined to a single country. Children engaged in labor have poor health status, which could be precipitated or aggravated by labor. Concerning physical health, many studies reported the prevalence of general symptoms (fever, cough and stunting) or diseases (malnutrition, anemia and infectious diseases). States could increase their capital by educating their labor force, through specialization, improving infrastructures and creating competition (Galli,2001). Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. ).EncyclopediaofSocialMovementMedia.doi:10.4135/9781412979313.n163, Why do we still have Child Labour?-New Lanark. Diss. However, these databases were used for their known quality and to allow reproduction of the data. Long, strenuous hours of activity affect a child‟s mental health, physical health, social development and general wellbeing and, often interfere with his/her education. Moreover, peers and colleagues at work can affect the behavior of children, for example, smoking or drugs. The Nature and Magnitude of Child Labor 3. Initial evidenc… This definition presents a much more widespread picture of the phenomenon of child and youth labor and much higher absolute numbers of children and youth who devote long hours to activities that are likely to impair their possibility of attending school. Roggero P, Mangiaterra V, Bustreo F et al. Young girls tend to start working at a much younger age than boys do as well because of traditional gender roles. Cuts (49.6%) were the most commonly reported injuries.14, Other studies that investigated the prevalence of general symptoms in working children in Pakistan, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Indonesia reported that child labor is negatively associated with health.15–19 Watery eyes, chronic cough and diarrhea were common findings, in addition to history of a major injury (permanent loss of an organ, hearing loss, bone fractures, permanent disability).20 One study, conducted in India reported that working children suffered from anemia, gastrointestinal tract infections, vitamin deficiencies, respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and high prevalence of malnutrition.21 Another study—of poor quality—in India reported that child labor was associated with higher incidence of infectious diseases compared to non-working children.22, Only a few studies focused on specific diseases. If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Through a comprehensive systematic review, we conclude that child labor continues to be a major public health challenge. The stark difference between these two studies could be due to the explanation provided by Alem et al., i.e. (n.d.). iii ABSTRACT Child labor is a threatening evil. Furthermore, the frequency of reporting any injury or illness increases with the number of hours worked, with significant variation across employment sectors.13 A study in Iran reported that industrial workrooms were the most common place for injury (58.2%). A meta-analysis on the topic was published in 20 07.8 However, authors reported only an association of child labor with higher mortality and morbidity than in the general population, without reporting individual outcome specific effects.8 Another meta-analysis investigated the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child labor, on health. The ILO speaks about how at least 250 million children within the ages of 5-14 are considered participants in child labor, of this about 120 million of them work full-time (Elena,2014). Khan H, Hameed A, Afridi AK. This is an issue for most developing countries, it would also be necessary for the states to make sure schools are in good quality, and the curriculum would need to be ideal for attendees. Child, Community, Development, Economic Growth, Employment, Family, Institution, Life, Parenting, Poverty, Child, Family, Grief, Homelessness, Poverty, Single Parent, Violence, Affordable Housing, Child, Economy, Family, Homelessness, Poverty, Social Issues, Employment, Homelessness, Justice, Poverty, United States, Wealth, Welfare, Child Care, Employment, Gender Roles, Inequality, Poverty, Sexism, Welfare, Child, Family, Health Care, Poverty, Poverty Reduction, Sibling, Social Inequality, Tough Life’s Obstacles of Homeless People, OhmyNews(Korea).(n.d. The topic gained scientific attention with the industrial revolution. Children with families that are socially disadvantaged, morally bankrupt, or may have family members with alcoholism are more likely to end up on the streets whether it be temporary or permanent. Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+! Literature Review. Most of the current literature about child labor follow a cross-sectional design, which although can reflect the health status of working children, it cannot establish cause–effect associations. In recent years, a growing number of authors have turned their attention to the question of why children work. 1) shows the studies selection process. In 1932, the year M.P was born, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression and just a few years away from the start of World War II. They reported that the sexual assault rate was 77.7%. reports on child labour, poverty education and public health of child labour. 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