Dillon notes that Gnosticism raises questions about the development of early Christianity. It is an inward "knowing", comparable to that encouraged by Plotinus (neoplatonism), and differs from proto-orthodox Christian views. [note 16] The influence of Buddhism in any sense on either the gnostikos Valentinus (c. 170) or the Nag Hammadi texts (3rd century) is not supported by modern scholarship, although Elaine Pagels (1979) called it a "possibility"..  Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy have expanded upon this idea of Paul as a gnostic teacher; although their premise that Jesus was invented by early Christians based on an alleged Greco-Roman mystery cult has been dismissed by scholars. , The Thomasine Traditions refers to a group of texts which are attributed to the apostle Thomas. [note 11] The term Gnosticism was derived from the use of the Greek adjective gnostikos (Greek γνωστικός, "learned", "intellectual") by St. Irenaeus (c. 185 AD) to describe the school of Valentinus as he legomene gnostike haeresis "the heresy called Learned (gnostic). , Gnosis refers to knowledge based on personal experience or perception. , Hans Jonas (1903–1993) took an existential phenomenological approach to Gnosticism. Just like how the lotus flower would prefer death over drinking from the dirty swamp, the pure soul is unable to survive without the ginān from the True Guide. , The Gnostic movements may contain information about the historical Jesus, since some texts preserve sayings which show similarities with canonical sayings. ", The Religionsgeschichtliche Schule ("history of religions school", 19th century) had a profound influence on the study of Gnosticism. The adjective is not used in the New Testament, but Clement of Alexandria[note 3] speaks of the "learned" (gnostikos) Christian in complimentary terms. Ptolemy's Epistle to Flora describes a general asceticism, based on the moral inclination of the individual. It was, however, almost exclusively limited to Egypt, though according to Sulpicius Severus it seems to have found an entrance into Spain through a certain Mark from Memphis. Jesus and several of his apostles, such as Thomas the Apostle, claimed as the founder of the Thomasine form of Gnosticism, figure in many Gnostic texts. Greek Gospel of the Egyptians was a Gnostic gospel from around the period of 120-150 A.D. that has only been mentioned three times as existing. These schools tend to view evil in terms of matter that is markedly inferior to goodness and lacking spiritual insight and goodness rather than as an equal force.  Nonetheless, early Gnostic teachers such as Valentinus saw their beliefs as aligned with Christianity. According to Layton, "the lack of uniformity in ancient Christian scripture in the early period is very striking, and it points to the substantial diversity within the Christian religion. Gospel of Judas (recovered via the antiquities black marketin 1983, and then reconstructed in 2006) Hans Jonas discerned two main currents of Gnosticism, namely Syrian-Egyptian, and Persian, which includes Manicheanism and Mandaeanism. These movements are considered by most to be religions in their own right, and are not emanations from Christianity or Judaism. Prior to the discovery at Nag Hammadi, only the following texts were available to students of Gnosticism.Reconstructions were attempted from the records of the heresiologists, but these were necessarily … Het betreft het hermetisme, de gnostiek, het mandeïsme en het manicheïsme.In de Nederlandse literatuur worden religies die gnosis als kernbegrip hadden gezamenlijk weleens benoemd met het woord gnosticisme. 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